Impacts of Good Food Education

Digging in the Evergreen Heights garden. Credit: Kelli Ebbs.

Farmers in the Playground digging in the Evergreen Heights garden. Credit: Kelli Ebbs.

Are you looking for evidence that shows the benefits of good food education for children and youth? You’ll find a number of studies, quotes and references below.

Are there studies that you know about that are missing? Please get in touch with us to add to our list.

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In May 2014 the University of Guelph’s Research Shop published a literature review of evidence that supports the impacts of good food education for children and youth, along with a summary of what was discovered. The general findings were that, while there is much documented evidence from outside of Canada, more research is needed to explore the impacts of the education programs that are happening here in Ontario.

Other lists that highlight the Benefits of Good Food Education:

You can access other lists at:

Evidence in support of food education:

The following direct quotes have been excerpted from the studies and reports that were explored over the course of the literature review. Some quotes have more than one reference. The direct quote has been taken from the first reference in all cases. Subsequent references contain the same information, but used different words to describe it.

Many of these quotes are included in the Research Shop document; however, many others have since been added. We hope that this page will provide an ongoing collection of the impacts of this work.


Broad Benefits | Healthy Weights | Overall health and wellbeing | Academic achievement, classroom behaviour and food literacy | Physical Activity


Unhealthy food consumption and lack of food literacy | Unhealthy Weights | Chronic disease and overall health and wellbeing | Economic Costs

** Note that the full references are listed below the table in alphabetical order.

Direct Quote from Study
Benefits of food education
Broad benefits
“Dietitians of Canada asserts that, when systemic and comprehensive approaches place equal value on the ecological, social, educational, and economic aspects of the dominant food system in Canada, many of its unintended harms—food insecurity and environmental degradation—will be addressed. Schools can play a particularly important role within such a systemic, comprehensive approach. They reach the majority of children and youth who are captive audiences ripe for learning in multiple settings and engaged in multiple activities.” Carlsoon and Williams, 2008 Canada
“The Pan-Canadian Joint Consortium for School Health reports that “research has shown that it is more effective to work more comprehensively, that is, integrating policies and practices that support student learning, health and well-being into every aspect of the school environment.” Ministry of Health Promotion, 2010. Canada
“In Canada, an Ontario government–commissioned report states: “Schools have a vital role to play in preparing our young people to take their place as informed, engaged, and empowered citizens who will be pivotal in shaping the future of our communities, our province, our country, and our global environment” (Bondar et al., 2007, p. 6).” Tan and Pedretti. 2010 Canada
Healthy weights
“A national study of Canadian children and youth found that those who eat vegetables and fruit at least five times a day are substantially less likely to be overweight or obese than those who ate these foods less often.” Shields, 2006; Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, 2013 Canada
“Significantly fewer children in the intervention schools (7.5%) than in the control schools (14.9%) became overweight after 2 years (unadjusted means).” Foster et al. 2008 US
“After 2 years, the unadjusted prevalence of overweight had decreased by 10.3% in intervention schools and had increased by 25.9% in control schools.” Foster et al. 2008 US
a name=”wellbeing”>Overall health and wellbeing
“A study of 45 schools in Toronto, Canada, indicates that school ground greening actually calms student traffic and softens play surfaces so that there are, in fact, fewer ‘knock-and-bump’ injuries.” Dyment, 2005 Ontario
“Participants indicated that when school grounds had been greened, they tended to become more peaceful, harmonious and socially inclusive. They reported, for example, an increase in cooperative play (73% of study participants), a decrease in boredom (74%) and a decrease in negative and aggressive play (66%). They noted that students were being more civil (72%), communicating more effectively (63%) and being more cooperative (69%). They also reported that discipline problems had decreased (44%) or remained the same (40%) and that incidents of aggressive behaviour had likewise decreased (45%) or remained the same (53%). About half of the study participants felt that green school grounds were more inclusive with respect to gender (54%), class (42%), race (46%) and ability (52%), while the other half reported no change.” Dyment, 2005 Ontario
“Questionnaire respondents indicated that students were more likely to explore widely (90%), to learn about their local environment (91%), and to have a greater sense of wonder and curiosity (92%) after their school ground had been greened. Over 90% of respondents also indicated that student environmental awareness and stewardship had increased on the green school ground.” Dyment, 2005 Ontario
“Students indicated that the snack program helped them to eat healthier by motivating them (74%), eating more fruit (86%), and making better dietary choices (68%). However, the majority (50%) did not think that the snack program encouraged them to ask their parents to purchase vegetables or fruit that they had tried at school.” Skinner et al. 2012 Ontario
“Overall, participants felt the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Program (NFVPP) was a valuable program and would participate in a program like this again. Participants felt the program helped students make healthier food choices at school and at home. Many also felt that some students in this region had limited exposure to fruit and vegetables, making this region especially suitable for the program. A few observed a difference in student behaviour, such as greater attention in class.”“Over 80% of students liked the idea of receiving free fruit at school. Approximately 60% to 70% of students liked the idea of receiving vegetables.”“Comparing change of students’ responses to each of the cognitive and behavioural questions at baseline and endpoint, it was noted that students’ preference for certain types of fruit and vegetables were shifted from ‘never tried it’ towards ‘like it’”“There were favourable preference changes on certain fruit and vegetables with a shift from ‘never tried it’ towards ‘like it’.”The authors suggested that exposure is a promising technique for improving children’s liking of vegetables. He et al. 2007 Ontario
“Healthy eating patterns during childhood are associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases and obesity later in life. Evidence suggests that eating habits developed during early childhood are sustained into adolescence and adulthood.” Ratcliffe et al. 2011; Health Canada, 2012 Canada
“[O]ne striking and robust result emerged: gardening increased vegetable consumption in children, whereas the impacts of nutrition education programs were marginal or nonsignificant. We suggest two nonmutually exclusive hypotheses to explain our results: gardening increases access to vegetables and gardening decreases children’s reluctance to try new foods. Our results suggest that gardening should be an integral component of wellness programs and policies.” Langellotto and Gupta, 2012 US
“In one review, seven qualitative studies indicate school gardens have a strong community-building component, promoting teamwork, student bonding and school engagement with parents and neighbors. Researchers observe that gardens affect a school’s social learning environment in ways that may alter the school culture and identity.” Henderson et al. 2011 Oregon, US
“Teachers, parents, and volunteers all remarked on the growth in confidence, independence, and self-esteem they had witnessed in the children since they had been participating in school gardening program.” Block et al. 2013 Australia
“At one culturally diverse school, teachers felt that kitchen classes functioned as a natural environment in which to discuss and incorporate diversity.”“Parents from non-English speaking backgrounds, typically uncomfortable in classroom literacy programs, also volunteered in the kitchen and garden.” Block et al. 2013 Australia
Academic achievement, classroom behaviour and food literacy
“Over the course of a school year, the scores in mathematics and science for students involved in the school garden program showed significantly greater gains than the scores of students in the control school. The students in the garden-­‐‑based program also made greater gains in understanding ecological cycles and showed an improved understanding of sustainable agriculture. Teachers involved in the garden-­‐‑based program rated their school as more conducive to learning than the teachers in the control school, and they ranked compassion for living things as one of their top three teaching priorities.” Upitis et al. 2013 Canada
Describes benefits of school gardens in terms of improved academic performance through outdoor labs, enhanced student experience through the beautification of the grounds, and the promotion of healthy eating habits and exercise. Ozer, 2007 Canada
“The vast majority of survey respondents (91%) reported that opportunities to harvest and taste food from the garden foster student awareness and appreciation of nutritional food.” Bell and Dyment, 2006 Canada
“A recent report among grade 5 students from Alberta, Canada suggested that higher food preparation frequency was associated with greater fruit and vegetable preference and self-efficacy for healthy eating.” Chu et al. 2013 Canada
“Many coordinators felt the programme had positive academic and social impacts on students. Literature on school meal programmes also suggests that the school food environment has social and academic benefits for students, which can impact students’ eating habits.” Valaitis et al. 2013 Canada
“Additionally, food focused activities such as food gardens and culinary programs help to bring education to life for children and youth, especially when linked to the curriculum. By taking learning outside of the classroom and into real-world settings children and youth become more engaged in learning about topics from math and science to English and history and gain useful and marketable skills. And yet, only 0.5 percent of Canada’s 16,000 schools have food gardens. In contrast, 10 percent of schools in the UK have food gardens and 30 percent of California schools have them.” Sustain Ontario, 2012 Canada
“REAL School Gardens partner schools have seen standardized test score pass rates increase between 12% – 15%. Science scores saw the largest increases, placing students on a path for success in a professional job market that increasingly requires STEM skills.”“When an independent research team isolated our impact, at least 1/3 of the standardized test score pass rate increases were proven to be a direct result of the REAL School Gardens program.”“84% of students had high levels of engagement in math and science when in a REAL school garden.”“Teachers in the REAL School Gardens program reporting they were satisfied with their position increased more than 100%.”“Educators with a REAL school garden were 5 times more likely to spend substantial time using the outdoors for academic instruction.” REAL School Gardens, Retrieved 2013 Washington, DC
“Numerous studies have proven that garden-based education improves academic performance and may lead to higher test scores in student populations. Some of the strongest academic gains appear to be in the areas of math and science, and overall improvement on standardized achievement tests has been well documented.” California School Garden Network, Retrieved 2013 US
“Participants in a school garden program in California experienced significant gains in overall GPA in math and science, and improvement on a standardized psychosocial questionnaire.” Murphy 2003 US
“A broad study of 40 schools from across the U.S. shows that environment-based education curriculum results in better performance on standardized achievement tests.” Lieberman andHoody 1998 US
“84.3% of teachers exposed to school gardens think gardens help students learn more effectively.”“73% of teachers surveyed think experiential learning in gardens is effective.” Skelly and Bradley 2000 Florida, US
“Students who participate in school meal programs learn better and have a better chance of academic achievement.” Henderson et al. 2011 Oregon, US
“Studies show that children who spend time in the garden learn better, get physical activity and behave better in the classroom.” Henderson et al. 2011 Oregon, US
“Although breakfast consumption has been repeatedly shown to improve short-term cognitive function, such as memory, it has not been significantly associated with longer learning outcomes other than educational attainment. Breakfast is a key component of maintaining a healthy diet and has a much more profound effect on under-nourished and food insecure children.” Henderson et al. 2011 Oregon, US
“One study examined the effects of healthy nutrition knowledge from a 10-week course on self-reported behaviors of preschool teacher candidates in Turkey. Unusan (2007) found that nutrition health knowledge scores improved significantly from pre- to posttest for 9 of the 18 practices, with more practices (13 of the 18) improved on follow-up. The follow-up practices indicated that teacher candidates not only reduced their intake of sodium and sugar, but also drank more water and did not skip eating breakfast and lunch, despite having early morning classes and classes that ran through the day (Unusan, 2007). If preschool teachers realize the importance of their own health practices, they may be able to more successfully model and promote healthy practices when working with preschoolers.” Unusan, 2007 Turkey
“Schools are ideal settings for nutrition education for several reasons:· Schools can reach almost all children and adolescents.· Schools provide opportunities to practice healthy eating. More than one-half of youths in the United States eat one of their three major meals in school, and 1 in 10 children and adolescents eats two of three main meals in school.· Schools can teach students how to resist social pressures. Eating is a socially learned behavior that is influenced by social pressures. School-based programs can directly address peer pressure that discourages healthy eating and harness the power of peer pressure to reinforce healthy eating habits.· Skilled personnel are available. After appropriate training, teachers can use their instructional skills and food service personnel can contribute their expertise to nutrition education programs.””Evaluations suggest that school-based nutrition education can improve the eating behaviors of young persons.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1996 US
“Schools, and in particular school cafeterias, have been identified as reasonable settings to effectively impact children’s nutrition.” Aftesmes, 2011 Massachusetts, US
“Research shows that children consume more fruits and vegetables when fresh produce is made available and accessible. Schools offering a wide variety of produce have seen increases in children’s fruit and vegetable intake and changes in their food choices and preferences.” Aftesmes, 2011 Massachusetts, US
Physical activity
“The vast majority of participants (89%) indicated that food gardens at their schools are providing important opportunities for moderate physical activity.” Bell and Dyment, 2006 Canada
“After 2 years, the unadjusted hours of total inactivity increased by ∼ 3% in the control group and decreased by ∼9% in the intervention group.”“Similarly, after 2 years, unadjusted weekday television watching increased by ∼7.5% in the control group and decreased by ∼1% in the intervention group.” Foster et al. 2008 US
Concerns regarding the State of health of today’s children and youth
Unhealthy food consumption and lack of food literacy
“Only half of youth [in Ontario] consume the recommended number of vegetable and fruit servings per day, and many children and youth are consuming too many calories from sugar-sweetened beverages.” Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, 2013 Ontario
“Less than half of youth aged 12 to 19 in Ontario reported that they consume vegetables and fruit at least five times per day, a trend that has remained consistent over time and is similar to the national rate.” Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, 2013 Ontario
“Similar to other research conducted with Ontario adolescents (Greene-Finestone et al., 2005; Pender, 2003) the proportion of students consuming the recommended number of servings of Vegetables and Fruit, and Grain Products was low in grade six and even less by grade nine. Poor intake of vegetables and fruit has been observed in previous reports on adolescents (Janssen, 2008; King, Boyce, & King, 1999; Neumark-Sztainer, Story, Resnick, & Blum, 1996); yet vegetables and fruit are an important nutrient-dense source of energy.” Rossiter et al. 2012 Ontario
“We are seeing the decline of food literacy, that is, the ability of people to shop for and cook food in a healthy way; choosing and preparing the most economical and healthy foods (from high-fibre grains and dried beans to inexpensive cuts of meat) requires some knowledge.” Baker, Campsie and Rabinowicz, 2010 Ontario
“Many Ontarians see food as fundamental to their personal health and the health of their communities, but they cannot always make the connection to the kind of food they want.” Baker, Campsie and Rabinowicz, 2010 Ontario
“Our data indicate a similar situation; at baseline 74.4% of youth in Kashechewan and 82.9% in Attawapiskat failed to reach minimum recommendations.” Gates et al. 2013b Ontario
“The British Columbia Agriculture Plan, Strategy 20, directly identifies the growing divide between youth and the origins of their food and stresses the need to reconnect young people with the land, link urban and agricultural communities together, and provide hands-on learning opportunities to the leaders of tomorrow.” Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 2008 Canada
“Disparities in food consumption are also observed in childhood. National nutrition surveys such as the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES have shown that children and adolescents are consuming products high in sugar and fat, and low in nutrient value. It is also reported that children and adolescents rarely meet nutritional recommendations for intakes of fruit, vegetables and whole-grain product.” Dubois et al. 2011 Canada
“When analysing the diet of 10 000 children aged 3 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC), North and Emmett showed that children’s junk food intake was significantly associated with having a younger, less-educated mother and a mother of lower social class” Kranz and Siega-Riz, 2002 Canada
“The present study indicates that mother’s immigrant status, mother’s level of education and sex of the child are especially central socio-economic and demographic factors that relate to children’s food intakes. Children of immigrant mothers are also more likely to be raised in a low income family compared with children of Canadian-born mothers. Most studies support a positive association between parental level of education and intakes of healthy foods.” Dubois et al. 2011 Canada
“Among dietary concerns faced by Aboriginal Canadians is a low intake of milk and milk alternatives (MMA); in some regions, less than half of Aboriginal youth are meeting Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommendations” Gateset al. 2013a Canada
“Among Canadians aged four or older, 41% of snack calories came from foods that are not within one of the four food groups in Canada’s Food Guide.” Health Canada, 2012 Canada
“The proportion of meals that Canadians prepare and eat at home declined from 70 per cent in 2001 to 65 per cent in 2008, and the average Canadian visited restaurants 184 times in 2007” Canadian Restaurant and Foodservices Association (CRFA)2010 Canada
“Canada is the only nation in the former G8 that has no universal student nutrition policy and no federal funding for student nutrition programs.” Baker, Campsie and Rabinowicz, 2010; Russell et al. 2008 Canada
“In 2004, the 59% of Canadian children and youth aged 2 to 17 who consumed fruits and vegetables less than 5 times a day were significantly more likely to be overweight or obese than those who ate fruits and vegetables more frequently” Ministry of Health Promotion, 2006 Canada
“While data are limited in Canada, undesirable dietary patterns have been reported for children and adolescents.” Rossiter et al. 2012 Canada
“In particular, 15% of males and 21% of females met the recommendations for Vegetables and Fruit, and only 9% of males and 11% of females consumed the minimum number of servings of Grain Products. The mean number of servings per day for Vegetables and Fruit and Grain Products were below that recommended for both males and females in grade six.” Rossiter et al. 2012 Canada
“Less than one-fifth (19.1%) of children consumed at least 2 servings of milk daily as recommended by Canada’s Food Guide. Almost all children (98.5%) consumed fewer than 5 fruits and vegetables daily.” Downs et al. 2009 Canada
“The diets of many Canadian children and adolescents are characterized by low intakes from the nutrient-dense food groups of Canada’s Food Guide, high intakes of energy-dense/nutrient-poor foods and suboptimal food patterns, including breakfast skipping.” Valaitis et al. 2013 Canada
Unhealthy weights
“27.1% of youth aged 12 to 17 self-reported a [body mass index] BMI considered overweight or obese in 2009–2010.” Roberts et al. 2012 Ontario
“The problem should be addressed early, as childhood weight and dietary habits track into adulthood.” Gates et al. 2013b Ontario
“Presently, almost one-third of Canadian children and youth are overweight or obese. Childhood obesity is associated with both immediate and long-term health risks, as well as an economic burden to the health care system.” Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, 2013; Roberts et al. 2012; Sustain Ontario 2012 Canada
“The prevalence of obesity among Canadian children and youth increased significantly from 6.3% in 1978–1979 to 12.7% in 2004 based on measured height and weight, while the prevalence of overweight increased from 17% to 22%, representing an increase of 102% and 29% respectively.” Roberts et al. 2012; Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, 2013 Canada
“There were significant differences in self-reported BMI between males and females; in 2009–2010, 33.5% of males versus 20.4% of females reported being overweight or obese.” Roberts et al. 2012; Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, 2013 Canada
“Data show that about 55% of First Nations children on reserve and 41% of Aboriginal children and youth living off reserve are either overweight or obese.” Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion, 2013 Canada
“A Canadian longitudinal study (Physical Activity Longitudinal Study) found that the likelihood of being overweight or obese in adulthood was over six times greater in overweight or obese youth when compared to healthy weight youth, and that 83% of overweight or obese youth in the study remained overweight or obese as adults” Herman et al. 2009 Canada
“About 30 per cent of our children and youth – almost one in every three children – are now an unhealthy weight. The problem is serious for everyone, but it is more severe for boys than girls and for Aboriginal children.” Healthy Kids Panel, 2013 Canada
“By 2040, up to 70 per cent of today’s children will be overweight or obese adults and almost half our children will be an unhealthy weight. A much larger proportion of children will cross the line from being overweight to being obese, and the impact on their physical and mental health and well-being will be severe.” Le Petit and Berthelot, 2012 Canada
“Other provinces are investing in their obesity strategies. For example, Nova Scotia, Quebec and Alberta are investing, on average, $5.87 per capita per year to prevent and reduce obesity, and we recommend that Ontario commit at the same level. Given the size of its population, Ontario should invest at least $80 million each year in new funding that targets childhood overweight and obesity. That represents only .17 per cent of the province’s health budget and 1.7 per cent of what Ontario is currently spending on the consequences of obesity.” Healthy Kids Panel, 2013 Canada
“Rates of obesity in rural areas in Canada are said to be higher than in urban areas.”“Rural adolescents are positioned as more obese than their urban counterparts.” Ministry of Health Promotion, 2006; McPhail et al. 2013 Canada
“The rates of obesity among Aboriginal people are nearly twice the overall rate for Canadian adults, and this is accompanied by high rates of type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal communities in Canada.” Ministry of Health Promotion, 2006 Canada
“Statistics Canada has found that 26% of children aged 6 to 11 are overweight or obese. The percentage rises to 28% for Canadian teenagers and a staggering 61% for Canadian adults.” Baker, Campsie and Rabinowicz, 2010 Canada
“In Canada, Aboriginal people have 2.5 times greater odds of being obese than non-Aboriginals.2 Childhood overweight and obesity are mounting problems; in 2004, 21% of off-reserve Aboriginal youth aged 12 to 17 years were overweight, and 20% were obese (compared to 29% and 9%in the general population).” Gates et al. 2013b Canada
“One longitudinal study in the United States (Bogalusa Heart Study) found that 87% of obese children and 66% of overweight children went on to become obese adults.” Freedman et al. 2009 US
“Obesity in young persons is related to elevated blood cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, and some very obese youths suffer from immediate health problems (e.g., respiratory disorders, orthopedic conditions, and hyperinsulinemia). Being overweight during childhood and adolescence has been associated with increased adult mortality.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1996 US
“Nearly one in three children and adolescents in the United States is overweight or obese.” Aftosmes, 2011 US
Chronic disease and overall health and wellbeing
“If nothing is done, the current generation of children in Ontario will be the first that has a lower quality of life than their parents. They will develop chronic illnesses much younger and be more affected as they age” Healthy Kids Panel, 2013 Ontario
“Ontarians are increasingly unhealthy, particularly children and youth, who are facing new health problems such as diabetes at greatly increased rates. As many commentators have noted, after decades in which members of each generation could expect to live longer, healthier lives than those in the preceding generation, this trend has been reversed. In many families, the children may live shorter, less healthy lives than their parents” Baker, Campsie and Rabinowicz, 2010 Ontario
“In Ontario, one in every nine children lives in poverty. Meanwhile, rates of diabetes and obesity are increasing among Ontario’s children. The serious consequences of these trends for children’s health and educational outcomes are foreseeable, and the effects of those outcomes on Ontario’s health care costs and future economy can also be predicted. These problems could be alleviated with school food programs that ensure that children have both the nutrition and food literacy they need to focus on their studies today and to ensure their health in the future.” Baker, Campsie and Rabinowicz, 2010 Ontario
“Nutrient inadequacies in Aboriginal children and adolescents from certain communities have been documented for iron, folate, vitamin D, calcium and vitamin A.” Skinner et al. 2012 Ontario
“Health Canada recently reported that over 10% of Canadian households with children experienced moderate or severe income-related food insecurity in 2004; 5.2% of these families experienced food insecurity at the child level.” Carlsson and Williams, 2008 Canada
“Cree children were at risk for Zn inadequacy and had intakes of vitamin D and Ca below the adequate intake, which confirms findings of low intakes of several micronutrients in Aboriginal communities in Canada. Milk was an important source of Ca and vitamin D for Cree children and an increase in diet quality would be anticipated if milk consumption was increased.” Downs et al. 2009 Canada
“Families and children do not feel the impact of hunger at just the dinner table; food insecurity manifests itself in many other social outcomes, including health, education, and economic prosperity.” Augustine-Thottungal et al. 2013 US
“Food insecurity in early childhood (ages 0-3) is associated with impaired cognitive development, which can negatively impact a child’s future potential academic and economic success.” Augustine-Thottungal et al. 2013 US
“Without intervention, one in every three children born in 2000 is likely to develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime, and for children of color the likelihood increases to one in two.” Victor, 2004 US
“Perhaps most importantly, there is evidence that this is the first generation that will have a shorter life expectancy than their parents if the obesity epidemic continues.” Olshansky et al. 2005 US
Economic costs
“The total economic burden of physical inactivity was $3.4 billion ($1.02 billion in direct costs and $2.34 billion in indirect costs) while the cost associated with obesity was $4.5 billion ($1.60 billion in direct costs and $2.78 billion in indirect costs) in Ontario for the year 2009.” Katzmarzyk, 2011 Ontario
“In 2000/2001, obesity cost Canada’s health care system an estimated $4.3 billion: $1.6 billion in direct costs, such as hospital care, drugs and physician services, and $2.7 billion in indirect costs, such as lost earnings due to illnesses and premature deaths associated with obesity. (8) Other risk factors that appear in childhood also contribute to the potential economic burden and underscore the importance of effective and comprehensive health promotion approaches.” Ministry of Health Promotion, 2010; Katzmarzyk, 2011 Canada


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